Glossary on technology transfer

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The European Patent Office (a regional patents office) was created by the European Patent Convention (EPC) to grant European patents, based on a centralized examination procedure.
is a trade mark which is registered at the EUIPO in accordance with the conditions contained in Regulation 2017/1001 on the European Union trade mark, as a result of which protection is obtained in the whole territory of the European Union.
is a contract licensing intellectual property to another party for its exclusive use and/or economic benefit.
a contract under which one entity (the franchisor), that has developed a proven model for conducting a particular business, allows one or more other entities (the franchisees) to use that business model, along with the right to use the franchisor’s intellectual property and know-how for a defined period of time in exchange for payment. The intellectual property rights that are licensed in a franchising agreement include trade marks and copyright, and often trade secrets, industrial designs and patents – depending on the particular business. The authorisation may also be given with regards to other distinctive signs, such as trade names.
means computer software whose users have the freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve.

According to the definition of the Free Software Movement, a program is free software if the program's users have the four essential freedoms:
  • The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 1).
  • The freedom to study how the program works, and change it so it does your computing as you wish (freedom 2). Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
  • The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor (freedom 3).
  • The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others (freedom 4). By doing this you can give the whole community a chance to benefit from your changes. Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
is a sign identifying products having a specific geographical origin and whose qualities and/or reputation are attributable to that origin.
is the abbreviation for Information and Communications Technology. The term refers to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications. This includes the Internet, wireless networks, cell phones, and other communication devices.
is one of the three basic patentability requirements under the European Patent Convention. An invention will be considered capable of industrial application if it can be made or used in any kind of industry. This requirement is to be understood in a broad sense: it includes for instance applications in the agricultural field. See also: Inventive step and Novelty.
is an intellectual property right aimed at protecting the appearance of products, in particular resulting from its lines, contours, colours, shape and materials.

It consists of the right to prevent any third party from making, offering, selling, importing, exporting or using a product in which the design is incorporated or to which it is applied, or stocking such a product, without the design owner's consent, when such acts are undertaken for commercial purposes.
a violation or infraction of the terms of an agreement, encroachment, trespass, or disregard of others' rights. Intellectual property infringement will refer to a breach of rights resulting from a patent, copyright, database right, performer right, design, trade mark, etc.
is a legal remedy that may be sought in a civil lawsuit (in addition to, or in place of, monetary damages) to stop an unlawful behaviour.
An intangible asset is an asset that is not physical in nature. Goodwill, brand recognition and intellectual property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyrights, are all intangible assets.
refers to the creations of the mind, such as inventions; literary and artistic works; designs; and symbols, names and images used in commerce.
are private legal rights that protect the creation of the human mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce. They are commonly divided into two categories:  Industrial Property Rights (e.g. patents, trade marks, industrial designs, geographical indications) and Copyright and Related rights (e.g. rights of the authors/creators and those of performing artists in their performances, producers of phonograms in their recordings, and those of broadcasters in their radio and television programmes).
is a patent application filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty.
is one of the three basic patentability requirements under the European Patent Convention. It means that an invention must be non-obvious to a person skilled in the field, having regard to the state of the art, in order to be patentable. See also: Industrial applicability and Novelty.
Intended as the exercise to gather as much information as possible on the value and the risks of a company's intangible assets, with a view to acquiring IP, raising capital and seeking financial assistance (e.g. bank loans). Although IP due diligence is a precondition for any capital investment, it can be helpful for enforcing IP rights and reducing the IP-related costs as well. In a few words, IP due diligence can be considered as an essential process when developing an IP strategy.
is an assessment of the value of a particular IP asset. IP valuation may be quantitative or qualitative in nature. There are a variety of methods to value IP.
When several individuals work together to create a single work, then all are co-authors of an undivided entire work and have joint ownership.
It is a collaboration of two or more companies to undertake a common project or to pursue a specific objective. To this end, co-venturers bring together their common ressources and capabilities, such as project funding, capital equipment, know-how and intellectual property. The joint venture has the scope to create a legally independent company to develop a competitive advantage by commercialising a new product or service (IP).