Glossary on technology transfer

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is a legal term referring to information previously disclosed to the public in any form (e.g. publications, documents, written articles, devices known, on sale, or used by the public, etc.) and any place (inside the national territory and outside) relating to the invention before its priority date.
is the country where the patent is first filed before being extended to other countries.
Priority date is the first filing date of a patent application, anywhere in the world (normally in the applicant’s domestic patent office), to protect an invention. The priority date is used to determine the novelty of the invention, which implies that it is an important concept in patent procedures.
refers to any computer software that is owned by an individual or a company and cannot be copied, used, modified or distributed by the others without having permission of its owner; its source code is almost always kept secret.
means any legal entity established as such by national law, and international organisations.
Research laboratories and agencies operated and funded entirely by government and other research organisations including universities and institutes of technology that receive a significant share of their total funding from public sources.
is a design registered with the European Union Intellectual Property Office (EUIPO).

Throughout the European Union a new design with an individual character can be protected as a registered Community design, valid in all 28 EU Member States, renewable every 5 years up to a maximum of 25 years.
are rights related to the protection of works of authorship under copyright, but are not granted to the author. The purpose of related rights is to protect the legal interests of certain persons and legal entities who contribute to making works available to the public. They include those of performing artists in their performances, producers of phonograms in their recordings, and those of broadcasters in their radio and television programs.
Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
is a payment made to a right holder for the use of the intellectual property which it owns, such as a patent, trade mark, or copyrighted work. Royalties can be freely negotiated but usually constitute a percentage of the revenues obtained by using the owner’s right. They are the most used remuneration method in the context of licence agreements.
Scientific and technological activities (STA) are defined as systematic activities which are closely concerned with the generation, advancement, dissemination, and application of scientific and technical knowledge in all fields of science and technology. These include such activities as research and development (R & D), scientific and technical education and training (STET), and the scientific and technological services (STS).
refers to enterprises which employ fewer than 250 persons and which have an annual turnover not exceeding EUR 50 million, and/or an annual balance sheet total not exceeding EUR 43 million.
a new, separate and independent company created from an existing company or organisation. The creation of spin-off is also one of the technology transfer mechanisms through which knowledge and/or intellectual property are transferred and commercially exploited.
A startup or start-up is a company or project undertaken by an entrepreneur to seek, develop, and validate a scalable business model.
Technology transfer
is the assignment of technological intellectual property, developed and generated in one place, to another through legal means such as technology licensing or franchising.
is an international agreement establishing minimum standards for IP regulation in the context of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
is a single European patent with unitary effect for the EU Member States involved in an enhanced cooperation. In order to obtain a unitary effect, patent holders need to request the unitary effect at the European Patent Office (EPO) within one month of the date of publication of the grant of the patent in the European Patent Bulletin. The unitary patent will be a third option for companies or inventors seeking patent protection in Europe in addition to national patents and 'classical' European patents (i.e. without unitary effect).
is one of the intellectual property rights that protects technical solutions such as an invention, with a lower level of inventiveness required than for a patent. The protection period is shorter than for patents (often 6 to 10 years).
WIPO is an agency of the United Nations that functions as a global forum for IP, providing several services including arbitration and mediation (e.g. domain names disputes), international registration systems for patents, trade marks, designs and appellations of origin), policy discussion, technical infrastructure, cooperation programs and information on intellectual property. WIPO administers 26 treaties and occupies a prominent role in the global IP landscape.